A DNA Profile
Six key genetic markers characteristic of George Stephen Egleton’s Y chromosomes were identified - M168, M89, M9, M45, M173 and M17.   The eldest of these, M168, first appeared in a man who lived in East Africa about 90,000 years ago.   This man was one of George Egleton's paternal ancestors.   He has become known as "Eurasian Adam" because essentially every modern non-African man alive today, as well as the majority of African men, belongs to one of the many family trees descended from him.
The M89 marker first appeared in a descendent of Eurasian Adam about 50,000 years ago.   By about 40,000 years ago, his descendents had journeyed out of Africa and into the Near East, from where they migrated eastward into Asia.   It is from these Asian ancestors that the M9 and M45 markers are inherited - the latter from a population located somewhere north of the Himalayas, around Central Asia or Mongolia.

This population later divided, with one branch heading northeast across Siberia and towards the Americas.   However, the M173 marker indicates that George Egleton's ancestors were part of a more westward expansion.   Some of these people journeyed back into Africa and others into South Asia but his Y chromosome contains the M17 marker which is inherited from a man living in Europe during the Ice Age.


Around 20,000 - 13,000 years ago, the advancing ice sheets forced humans out of northern Europe and into various glacial "refuges" further south.   While some people found shelter in the northern Balkans or the Iberian peninsula, the man from whom this M17 marker is inherited, seems to have lived around the present day Ukraine  some 15,000 - 10,000 years ago.   When the ice receded, his M17 bearing descendents expanded west across Europe, north into Scandinavia and east to the Caucasus Mountains and into Asia.


The spread of the M17 marker also seems to be connected with the expansion of the ancient Kurgan populations following their domestication of the horse around 3000 BC.   The Kurgans were Indo-European speaking nomads concentrated mainly between the Dneiper and Volga river valleys.   These highly mobile horsemen spread out from the Eurasian steppes into Europe and Central Asia.   By around 3,000 years ago they had also carried  M17 bearing lineages into the Indian sub continent.   A specific subgroup of M17 is often found today among Ashkenazi Levites.   This subgroup may be descended from the Khazars who fled to north and central Europe after the Khazarian Kingdom  (centered west of the Caspian, north of present day Georgia) began to break up around the 10th century.

Kurgan horsemen

Kurgan horseman Small Web view
The Kurgans were a pre-Celtic people from whom the Celts evolved.   The Kurgans came from the steppes of Russia and mixed with people north of the Black Sea  - the North Pontic Culture - and formed a new culture.   Between 2,400 and 2,300 BC, the people of this newly evolved culture, invaded southeast into the territory of the Trans-Caucasians and developed into the Indo-Europeans.   Some of them moved west into Europe.   From these latter people emerged the Battle Axe Culture, Tumulus and then the Umfield Culture which spread into central Europe and evolved into the Halstatt Culture.   The other group of these same pre Indo-European peoples migrated south from the Trans Caucuses to what is today Turkey, Iran and India.

Khazars were ancient Turkic people who appeared in Transcaucasia, a region between Europe and Asia, extending from the Greater Caucusus to the Turkish and Iranian borders between the Black and Caspian Seas, in the 2nd century AD and subsequently settled in the lower Volga region.   They emerged as a force in the 7th century and rose to great power.  The Khazar empire extended  from the northern shores of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea to the Urals and as far west as Kiev.   Itil, the Khazar capital in the Volga delta, was  a great commercial centre.   The Khazars conquered the Volga Bulgars and the Crimea, levied tribute from the eastern Slavs and warred with the Arabs, Persians and the Armenians.   Religious tolerance was complete in the Khazar empire, which reached a relatively high degree of civilization.   In the 8th century, the Khazar nobility embraced Judaism. In the 10th century AD, the Khazars entered into friendly relations with the Byzantine Empire.
The Khazars are believed by some to have been the ancestors of many east European Jews descended from one of the lost tribes of Israel.  Hebrew tradition has it that one of the lost tribes, named Ephraim, was referred to as Aegel, another term for Angle. Ephraim joined the Kingdom of Khazar and when the kingdom fell, was part of the migration west into northern Europe and Scandinavia and, as Angles, joined the Saxons, Jutes and Vikings invading what became England.


Anglo Saxons
 In the British Isles today, M17 bearing lineages are descended from a combination of Anglo-Saxon immigration between 400 and 800 AD and the Norse and Viking raids.
Who were the Anglo Saxons ?

Probably the best answer is that of the 8th century Northumbrian monk Bede who wrote in 731 :
"They came from the three most powerful Germanic tribes, the Saxons, the Angles and the Jutes.   Of Jutish origin are the people of Kent and of the Isle of Wight and the part of the Kingdom of Wessex opposite the Isle of Wight. still called the nations of Jutes.   From the Saxon land, that is the place which is now called Old Saxony, came the East Saxons, the South Saxons and the West Saxons.   From the Anglian land, that is the place between the realms of the Jutes and the Saxons, which is called Angulus and remains deserted to this day, came the East Angles, the Middle Angles, the Mercians and all the Northumbrian peoples, that is, those who dwell north of the River Humber as well as other Anglian peoples."
The Saxons (from Saxony) and the Angles (from between Saxony and Denmark) were probably the main force behind the invasion.

Who were the Vikings ?

The Viking people came from the three countries of Scandinavia - Denmark, Norway and Sweden.   They were also known as the Norse people.   They were mostly farmers, but some worked as craftsmen or traders.
Many Vikings were great travellers and sailed all over Europe and the north Atlantic Ocean in their long ships.   Some went as fierce pirate raiders - they stole treasure and attacked local people.   But most Vikings who sailed overseas were simply searching for a better land for their farms.
The Viking age began about 1,200 years ago in the 8th century AD and lasted for 300 years.